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TOMOGRAPHY, December 2015, Volume 1, Issue 2: 105-114
DOI: 10.18383/j.tom.2015.00175

Dynamic Glucose-Enhanced (DGE) MRI: Translation to Human Scanning and First Results in Glioma Patients

Xiang Xu1,5, Nirbhay N. Yadav1,5, Linda Knutsson7, Jun Hua1,5, Rita Kalyani2, Erica Hall2, John Laterra3,6, Jaishri Blakeley3,6, Roy Strowd3,6, Martin Pomper1, Peter Barker1,5, Kannie W. Y. Chan1,5, Guanshu Liu1,5, Michael T. McMahon1,5, Robert D. Stevens1,3,4,5, and Peter C.M. van Zijl1,5

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, 2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, and 3Departments of Neurology, Oncology, and Neuroscience and 4Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging and 6Hugo W. Moser Research Institute, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; and 7Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden


Recent animal studies have shown that D-glucose is a potential biodegradable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for imaging glucose uptake in tumors. We show herein the first translation of that use of D-glucose to human studies. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI at a single frequency offset optimized for detecting hydroxyl protons in D-glucose was used to image dynamic signal changes in the human brain at 7 T during and after D-glucose infusion. Dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) image data from 4 normal volunteers and 3 glioma patients showed a strong signal enhancement in blood vessels, while a spa- tially varying enhancement was found in tumors. Areas of enhancement differed spatially between DGE and conventional gadolinium-enhanced imaging, suggesting complementary image information content for these 2 types of agents. In addition, different tumor areas enhanced with D-glucose at different times after infusion, suggesting a sensitivity to perfusion-related properties such as substrate delivery and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. These preliminary results suggest that DGE MRI is feasible for studying glucose uptake in humans, providing a time-dependent set of data that contains information regarding arterial input function, tissue perfusion, glucose transport across the BBB and cell membrane, and glucose metabolism.

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