TOMOGRAPHY, December 2015, Volume 1, Issue 2: 145-151
Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Bias in Quantitative Diffusion Parameters of Renal Tissue with Intravoxel Incoherent Motion
1Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany; and 3Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands
Spatially nonuniform diffusion weighting bias as a result of gradient nonlinearity (GNL) causes substantial errors in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for anatomical regions imaged distant from the magnet isocenter. Our previously described approach effectively removed spatial ADC bias from 3 orthogonal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) measurements for monoexponential media of arbitrary anisotropy. This work evaluates correction feasibility and performance for quantitative diffusion parameters of the 2-component intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model for well-perfused and nearly isotropic renal tissue. Sagittal kidney DWI scans of a volunteer were performed on a clinical 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner near isocenter and offset superiorly. Spatially nonuniform diffusion weighting caused by GNL resulted both in shifting and broadening of perfusion-suppressed ADC histograms for off-center DWI relative to unbiased measurements close to the isocenter. Direction-average diffusion weighting bias correctors were computed based on the known gradient design provided by the vendor. The computed bias maps were empirically confirmed by coronal DWI measurements for an isotropic gel-flood phantom. Both phantom and renal tissue ADC bias for off-center measurements was effectively removed by applying precomputed 3D correction maps. Comparable ADC accuracy was achieved for corrections of both b maps and DWI intensities in the presence of IVIM perfusion. No significant bias impact was observed for the IVIM perfusion fraction.