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TOMOGRAPHY, December 2016, Volume 2, Issue 4: 317-324
DOI: 10.18383/j.tom.2016.00175

[18F]ML-10 PET: Initial Experience in Glioblastoma Multiforme Therapy Response Assessment

Matthew J. Oborski1, Charles M. Laymon1,2, Frank S. Lieberman3, Yongxian Qian4, Jan Drappatz3, and James M. Mountz2

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 2PET Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 3Department of Neurology and Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and 4MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Abstract

The ability to assess tumor apoptotic response to therapy could provide a direct and prompt measure of therapeutic efficacy. 18F-labeled 2-(5-fluoro-pentyl)-2-methyl-malonic acid ([18F]ML-10) is proposed as a positron emission tomography (PET) apoptosis imaging radiotracer. This manuscript presents initial experience using [18F]ML-10 PET to predict therapeutic response in 4 patients with human glioblastoma multiforme. Each patient underwent [18F]ML-10 PET and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before (baseline) and at ~2–3 weeks after therapy (early-therapy assessment). All PET and MRI data were acquired using a Siemens BioGraph mMR integrated PET/MRI scanner. PET acquisitions commenced 120 minutes after injection with 10 mCi of [18F]ML-10. Changes in [18F]ML-10 standard uptake values were assessed in conjunction with MRI changes. Time-to-progression was used as the outcome measure. One patient, ML-10 #4, underwent additional sodium-23 (23Na) MRI at baseline and early-therapy assessment. Siemens 3 T Magnetom Tim Trio scanner with a dual-tuned (1H-23Na) head coil was used for 23Na-MRI, acquiring two three-dimensional single-quantum sodium images at two echo times (TE). Volume-fraction-weighted bound sodium concentration was quantified through pixel-by-pixel subtraction of the two single-quantum sodium images. In the cases presented, [18F]ML-10 uptake changes were not clearly related to time-to-progression. We suggest that this may be because the tumors are undergoing varying rates of cell death and growth. Acquisition of complementary measures of tumor cell proliferation or viability may aid in the interpretation of PET apoptosis imaging.

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